The Tax Mechanics Involved In The Sale of Trade or Business Property

guidlines and rules on the sale of business propertyThere are many rules that can potentially apply to the sale of business property. Thus, to simplify discussion, let’s assume that the property you want to sell is land or depreciable property and is in use by your business. Additionally, you have been holding this property for more than a year.

There are different rules for property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. This includes:

  • Intellectual property.
  • Low-income housing.
  • Property that involves farming or livestock.
  • and other types of property.

General Rules

Under the Internal Revenue Code, your gains and losses from the sale of business property are netted against each other. The net gain or loss qualifies for tax treatment as follows:

1) If the netting of gains and losses results in a net gain, then long-term capital gain treatment results, subject to “recapture” rules discussed below. Long-term capital gain treatment is generally more favorable than ordinary income treatment.

2) If the netting of gains and losses results in a net loss, that loss is fully deductible against ordinary income. In other words, none of the rules that limit the deductibility of capital losses apply.

Recapture Rules

The availability of long-term capital gain treatment for business property net gain is limited by “recapture” rules. That is, rules under which amounts are treated as ordinary income rather than capital gain because of previous ordinary loss or deduction treatment for these amounts.

There’s a special recapture rule that applies only to business property. Under this rule, any business property net gain is treated as ordinary income instead of as long-term capital gain. This is to the extent you’ve had a business property net loss within the previous five years.

Section 1245 Property

“Section 1245 Property” consists of:

  1. All depreciable personal property, whether tangible or intangible.
  2. Certain depreciable real property. This is usually real property that performs specific functions.

If you sell Section 1245 Property, you must recapture your gain as ordinary income to the extent of your earlier depreciation deductions on the asset.

Section 1250 Property

“Section 1250 Property” consists, generally, of buildings and their structural components. Let’s say you sell Section 1250 Property that was placed in service after 1986. Here, none of the long-term capital gain attributable to depreciation deductions will be subject to depreciation recapture. However, for most non-corporate taxpayers, the gain attributable to depreciation deductions, to the extent it doesn’t exceed business property net gain, will (as reduced by the business property recapture rule above) be taxed at a rate of no more than 28.8% (25% as adjusted for the 3.8% net investment income tax) rather than the maximum 23.8% rate (20% as adjusted for the 3.8% net investment income tax) that generally applies to long-term capital gains of non-corporate taxpayers.

Other rules may apply to Section 1250 Property, depending on when it was placed in service.

Sale of Business Property Assistance

As you can see, even with the simplifying assumptions in this article, the tax treatment of the sale of business property & other assets can be complex. Contact our accounting firm if you’d like to determine the tax consequences of specific transactions or if you have any additional questions.